E-ISSN 2576-3288
 

Original Research 


Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed.

Abstract
Background: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder forms about ninety percent of all bladder cancer cases. There is a need to discover novel management strategies for such cancer as it has high incidence, high invasion and metastasizing rates. Human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) that is a cytoskeletal protein is an important signaling mediator of plethora of normal cellular events. Sparc-osteonectin; cwcv & kazallike; domains- proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), have many roles in normal cell cycle control, DNA repair and apoptosis.
Aim of the work: to detect expression of HEF-1 & SPOCK-1 in TCC using immunohistochemistry, then correlate combined expression of markers with pathological, clinical and prognostic parameters of patients with this cancer type.
Methods: we detected HEF-1 & SPOCK-1 expression in sections from 40 paraffin blocks from forty TCC patients using immunohistochemistry. Then we have correlated combined expression of markers with pathological, clinical and prognostic parameters of patients with this cancer type.
Results: The expression of HEF-1 in TCC was signifi¬cantly positively associated with lower degree of differentiation and stage of the cancer (p<0.001), presence of distant metastasis, vascular invasion (p =0.031), perineural invasion (p =0.004), presence of adjacent areas of carcinoma in situ (p=0.041) and higher mitotic index (p=0.003).
The expression of SPOCK-1 in TCC was signifi¬cantly positively associated with lower degree of differentiation and stage of the cancer (p<0.001), presence of distant metastasis, vascular invasion (p =0.031), perineural invasion (p =0.004), presence of adjacent areas of carcinoma in situ (p=0.041) and higher mitotic index (p=0.003).
Increased HEF1 and SPOCK-1 expression was associated with poor survival rates and patients outcome (P=0.041 and <0.001, respectively).
A positive correlation between HEF1 and SPOCK-1 expression in TCC was found (p=0.007).
Conclusion: HEF1 and SPOCK-1 have been considered markers of poor prognosis in patients with TCC.

Key words: HEF1, SPOCK-1, immunohistochemistry, survival, Transitional cell carcinoma, prognosis.


 
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Pubmed Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed. Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study. Am J Res Med Sci. 2018; 4(1): 1-11. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848


Web Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed. Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study. http://www.ajrms.com/?mno=302642300 [Access: December 09, 2018]. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed. Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study. Am J Res Med Sci. 2018; 4(1): 1-11. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed. Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study. Am J Res Med Sci. (2018), [cited December 09, 2018]; 4(1): 1-11. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848



Harvard Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed (2018) Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study. Am J Res Med Sci, 4 (1), 1-11. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848



Turabian Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed. 2018. Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study. American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 4 (1), 1-11. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848



Chicago Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed. "Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study." American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 4 (2018), 1-11. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed. "Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study." American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 4.1 (2018), 1-11. Print. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mouhamed A. Fouad, Mona Saeed Mohamed (2018) Prognostic and predictive values of human enhancer of filamentation1 (HEF-1) and Sparc/osteonectin, cwcv, and kazallike domains proteoglycan 1 (SPOCK1), in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder; an immunohistochemical study. American Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 4 (1), 1-11. doi:10.5455/ajrms.20180629043848





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