Time course effect of selected carbonated soft drinks on human fasting blood glucose level
Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Abiola Muhammad Adeosun, Oyindamola Fuyi-Williams, Francis Ojiko, Abeeb Taiwo Akorede
Background: Soft drinks are non-alcoholic beverages that contain high amount of reducing sugar, and their excessive or chronic intake has been associated with increased risk of diabetes in children and adults.
Objective: The time course change in blood sugar level following intake of different brands of soft drinks in adolescents was evaluated in this study. Methods: Forty female and male sex matched students of age from 18 to 25 years old who agreed to informed consent were requested to fast for 8 hours overnight and randomized into eight groups. Seven of these groups were respectively served 50 centilitres (cL) of Pepsi®, Mountain Dew®, Coca Cola®, Schweppes®, La Casera®, Teem®, and 7up® while the last group was served the same volume of drinking water and used as control. Socio-demographic information of the participants, fasting blood glucose (BG) level, and BG level at 30 and 60 minutes after soft drinks consumption were recorded into questionnaire provided for each participant. Total sugar content in the soft drinks was determined spectrophotometrically by phenol-sulphuric method. BG level of the participants at various intervals was estimated using Accu-Check Active Glucometer.
Results: The total sugar content (g/10 cL) of the soft drinks ranges from 9.53 ± 0.00 in Teem to 25.49 ± 0.03 in Mountain dew. There were marked rise in BG level in the participants that consumed soft drinks, having peak BG level reached at 30 minutes after intake of soft drinks compared to the participant in control group that drank water. The peak BG level at 30 minutes ranges from 123.30 ± 6.70 in participants that were given Schweppes® to 103.00 ± 16.46 in participants that received Mountain dew®. The bioavailability of BG level in each group is in decreasing order Teem® > 7up® > Coke® > Schweppes® > Pepsi® > La Casera® > Mountain dew®, respectively.
Conclusion: Pre-prandial consumption of soft drinks produced an average of 38% increase in BG level within 30 minutes which decreases afterward in adolescents. This observation suggests that sugar derived from soft drinks at pre-prandial consumption are rapidly absorbed and utilized in normal adolescents.