Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial efficacy of the root bark of Securidaca longipedunculata extracts
Adekunle Odunayo Adejuwon, Victoria Anatolyivna Tsygankova, Abiola Muhammad Adeosun, Adefemi Olawale Falase, Olubunmi Sharon Obayemi, Fatai Ishola Amusa
Background: In tropical Nigeria, plant parts are believed to possess phytochemicals that are capable of healing diverse ailments.
Objective: Phytochemical screening and anti-bacterial efficacy of the root bark of Securidaca longipedunculata were evaluated in five different solvent extracts.
Methods: Solvent extracts of the root bark of S. longipedunculata were prepared with hexane (HE), petroleum ether, methanol (ME), ethanol (ET), and water. Phytochemical screening was conducted on the extracts and the efficacies of the extracts were tested on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans using agar well diffusion technique.
Results: Phytochemical analysis of the root bark showed the presence of saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and alkaloids. It was observed that the HE extract of the root bark was effective on only K. pneumonia and P. aeruginosa at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 133 mg/ml. The ET extract of the root bark was effective on P. aeruginosa and C. albicans at a MIC of 80 mg/ml.
Conclusion: Phytochemical examination of the root bark of S. longipedunculata revealed the presence of some bioactive compounds. The HE and ET extracts produced considerable antimicrobial effects.